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Dr. DIANE MEDVED: Are Children Resilient?

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by Diane Medved, Ph.D.


You hear it all the time: children will get through all sorts of emotionally difficult experiences because they’re “resilient.” But are they?

Sophie, aged 4, reverted to diapers when her parents split up. Jason, 7, refused to go to school, clinging to his mom, when his dad left for a tour of military service.  Twins James and Mark, 9, increased their brotherly conflicts when their mom took a full-time tech job. Such negative reactions to major changes are so common among children, we expect them. Yet even as we tend to these sad responses, we continue to say off-handedly, “kids are resilient.”

In my book Don’t Divorce: Powerful Arguments for Saving and Revitalizing Your Marriage, I note that resilience means bouncing back to a former shape, and yet after a big blow—like parents’ divorce, but it could be any crushing event—children are ill-equipped to regain their previous equilibrium.

Children aren’t born with social skills—they’re simply primed to survive. They’ll do what they must in order to handle setbacks, but how they do that is not an innate resilience—it’s the flailing of a drowning man. The childhood task is to understand the world, and through experience and inculcation, learn the skills to navigate it. When a frightening event happens, kids can’t just summon some store of “resilience” that’s poised, ready for use.

You may have heard the bromide, “What doesn’t kill me makes me stronger.” Yes, enduring family upheaval may, after the trauma, cause some children to emerge stronger (and others may withdraw, or become fearful). But what caring parent would subject her child to the part that nearly “kills” him on the prospect that the child might be fortified for a subsequent ordeal?

In every case, the youngster never returns to his former state of childhood innocence—he becomes hardened and cautious lest he suffer again. In Saving Childhood: Protecting Our Children from the National Assault on Innocence, my husband and I write about the fragility of a joyful childhood, and the diligence with which parents must guard it. Our publisher chose to put this excerpt about an interchange with our then-young daughter on the back of the book jacket:

Last year on Shayna’s eighth birthday, our guests serenaded her over the cake, and our delighted daughter beamed. Toward the end of the day, she came over to Michael to cuddle. “I want to say goodbye,” she said sweetly and solemnly.

“Why?” Michael asked with some surprise.

“Because,” Shayna explained, “after today, you’re never going to see a seven-year-old daughter again.”

And of course, she was exactly right.

Assuming a child can absorb a hardship without permanent impact ignores that children are building their outlooks with every experience, every day.

Dr. Anthony Scioli, author of Hope in the Age of Anxiety, says building resilience relies on hope, a sense of mastery and attachments. When kids face situations like parental loss or divorce, relocation, or a major shift in family routines, they lose attachments (or opportunities for them) and lack the control over the situation to feel mastery. In the face of events they find hurtful or confusing, their hope is shattered.

In other words, family disruptions prevent children from becoming resilient, and undermine what limited resilience they may have picked up.

What can loving parents do? First off, when making family decisions, remember that the most beneficial climate for your children’s development offers security, consistency and optimism. One of the points I make in Don’t Divorce is that staying in a low-conflict marriage (and two-thirds of divorces occur in low-conflict homes) “for the sake of the children” is a noble, laudable choice.  That’s not to say that spouses should keep suffering, but that maintaining a stable home for the children you love can be a worthwhile motivator to address problems rather than call it quits.

Reassuringly, in studies of couples who deem themselves unhappily married, three-fourths of those who stick it out report five years later that their marriages are happy or very happy. Viewing your present differences as a “rough patch” or finite problem to solve can remind you of the long-term significance of your marriage.

In making other choices—moving to a new home, taking on more work—consider how brief and precious these years of childhood are. What household upgrades or amount of added income is worth the impact your decision will have for your children, and the loss of time you’ll have to enjoy and influence their upbringing?

And when circumstances force major adjustments on children, don’t assume they can just sail through. Instead, minimize the amounts and types of changes they’ll face, and keep constant any grounding influences you can.

For example, maintain the child’s surroundings—the familiar room, the usual routines and the caring adults who form his world. Talk to your children about the changes around them, and suggest ways they can see at least some differences in a positive light, while acknowledging the downsides and resultant feelings. Put yourself in your child’s shoes, and share how you imagine you’d feel if confronted with the adjustments your child must make.

The good news is that children can learn how to handle adversity. “Positive Psychology” guru Dr. Martin Seligman runs a program at the University of Pennsylvania that teaches resiliency, which is one of several coping skills necessary for well-being. Other school-based programs focus on adapting to change and awareness of emotions. But such courses exist because children aren’t naturally capable of rebounding after a blow.

Children may, with experience, time and practice, assisted by caring adults, become better at processing and responding to hardships thrust upon them—but when you hear someone justify a major family shift with “the kids will be okay—children are resilient,” do those youngsters a favor and find out more.



Diane Medved, Ph.D. is a psychologist and author of six books, including Saving Childhood: Protecting Our Children from the National Assault on Innocence (with Michael Medved,) and Don’t Divorce: Powerful Arguments for Saving and Revitalizing Your Marriage (March, 2017), available at bookstores and





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  1. CK  •  Apr 28, 2017 at 8:10 pm

    Hi Diane, big fan of you and your husband :).

    I couldn't agree more! Managing to survive and coming away unscathed are not the same thing.

    We know that stress, anxiety and related factors can physically alter *adult* brains (amygdala enlarges, hippocampus shrinks) and bring about all kinds of negative behavioral changes — so how much more is the developing brain impacted by these things? I've seen the long term impacts of stress/anxiety related disorders on family members and friends, including PTSD, bi-polar, BPD, panic attacks and more. We simply must stop children from starting down that road as it can become a *self-reinforcing* cycle that lasts a lifetime.

    One of my nieces helps to run a charity that tries to intervene in the lives of at-risk youth in one of our poorer, "hard" neighborhoods not far from downtown. Over the last 18 months or so they've discovered and started implementing TBRI (trust based relational intervention) that is based on some of this neuroscience and they've seen significant changes in children they couldn't reach otherwise. I don't know the details but the focus seems to be on helping the child identify and more constructively process/address their emotional state. In other words the program teaches the adults in a child's life to help the child become more resilient.

    While avoiding unnecessary stresses is the ideal, we know there will be many stresses in life, and having the tools to deal with them is a must, and most children do not come with that toolset built in. While designed for children from "hard places" I can't see how it wouldn't apply to some degree to most children at one point or another in their lives. For those interested in learning more, you can check out the program's website (I am not affiliated the program in any way other than the fact my niece is going through the training for professionals, nor am I specifically endorsing it, just passing on my niece's endorsement).

    "It is a caregiver-based intervention that is designed for children who have experienced relationship-based traumas such as institutionalization, multiple foster placements, maltreatment, and/or neglect."

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